Jandl, S. Schuler, A. Schindlbacher, and C. Oluoch-Kosura A. Muriuki, F. Olubayo, and D. Haberl, K. Erb, S. Gingrich, T. Kastner, and F. Krausmann 14 Soil Carbon and Biofuels; I. Bai, D. Dent, Y. Wu, and R. Singh, R. Wilson, J. Bruskotter, J.
Brooks, A. Zwickle, and E. Gaiser, K. Fan, J. Cao, W. Wei, F. Zhang, and Y. Du kanske gillar. Moreover, SPU concept leads to opportunities for ES assessment by enhancing interdisciplinary collaboration between ecologists and economists. In the MUWBR, SPU for provisioning services timber, food from agriculture, freshwater for energy production are lands and water mass directly used by humans and, beyond the ecosystems naturally present within the reserve, are defined in terms of property rights, right of exploitation and accessibility.
Ecosystem Services and Carbon Sequestration in the Biosphere
Regulating services global climate regulation, habitat provision are provided across the MUWBR while their benefits can be considered as regional or global. Cultural services are also provided in the all MUWBR but some of them are limited by accessibility recreation and tourism. SPU mapping offers a synthetic vision of the ecosystems producing ES but should not make us forget that this ES supply varies in space, time and complexity, i. SPUs are dynamic. Indeed, complex key ecological processes are hidden like, for exemple, the symbiosis between trees and ectomycorrhizal fungi that contributes to the carbon storage and sequestration by boreal forest since the fungi receive energy from their host tree and, in return, deliver key nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus [ 65 ].
Regarding geographical and temporal variation, it is relevant to have in mind that the rates of storage and sequestration can vary over the lifespan of a tree, i. In the same way, the value of for food from agriculture in SPUs are reduced when some fields are left fallow. It would also be relevant, as advised by Andersson et al. Finally, corridors that connect SPUs are important for the ES supply and should be an important consideration in planning and management [ 67 ].
For example recreation provided by moose hunting depend on moose habitat, which may be determined by not only the SPU, but also on the connectivity to other sites and the larger region. Monetary valuation offers a formalized framework to assess the economic benefits derived from ecosystems in a tangible metric for decision-makers. However, authors are aware of the non-exhaustivity of monetary approaches to account for ES demand and the multi-dimensional nature of human well-being and as Martin and Mazzota [ 68 ], they expect to see more ES assessments based on non-monetary valuation. The latter allows to articulate plural values through different qualitative and quantitative measures other than money [ 69 ].
Although the major international initiatives and programs MA, TEEB, IPBES have acknowledged the the need to conduct this type of valuation, it does not yet constitute a formalized methodological framework and is still difficult to operationalize [ 70 — 71 ].
Monetary values are still powerfull for decision-making since they are easier to aggregate in order to obtain a total economic value but they do not allow to highlight the trade-offs between ES involving multiple interests [ 72 ]. In this study, monetary valuation focused only on use values as non-use valuation methods based on revealed preference approaches are expensive, time-consuming and need good quality and large data set to outweigh the possible market imperfections and policy failures which can distort the estimated ES value [ 50 ].
Authors agree with Plottu and Plottu [ 64 ] saying that non-use values stem from more different levels of choice problems than use values and thus, must be apprehended in a multidimensional framework. Mainly influences by the land use, the total use value is also influences by specific contexts i. For the value estimate, a suitable pricing method was chosen for each of the ES indicators based for a majority of them on previous ES valuations.
In this study, because provisioning services are market goods, their economic values have been estimated through market prices timber and production function food from agriculture; freshwater for energy production. Regulating ES global climate regulation has been estimated considering the social cost of carbon while cultural ES recreation and tourism has been valuated through production function.
Because these use values are based on market prices, they provide some insight concerning the ES demand. As a result, the approach favors specific ES for which monetary indicators exist. However, the authors are convinced that the monetary values they highlighted can be used as a strong argument for not undervaluing the value of preserved ecosystems compared to exploited ecosystems.
To go further and improve the assessment, a deeper use of multicriteria analyzes of ES based on ecological, economic and social considerations, considering a pluralism of values can be relevant [ 74 ].
Multicriteria analysis makes possible the formal integration of multiple values after each of them has been assigned a relative weight [ 75 ]. The output of multicriteria analysis is a ranking of values that serve as a support for decision and management without the need to convert all values to a single unit.
For example, the current status of the caribou stock and the importance of the MUWBR as a habitat for this species could be considered in the light of ecological e. Another way to improve the assessment can be the use of the approach of ES bundles which is increasingly recommended for ES assessment. ES bundles are defined as sets of ES that repeatedly appear together across space or time and are used to analyze interactions among ES [ 76 ]. The approach is thus a useful tool for improving the management of ecosystem and identifying common ES tradeoffs and synergies: trade-offs arise when the provision of one service is enhanced at the cost of reducing the provision of another service, and synergies arise when multiple services are enhanced simultaneously [ 76 ].
However, if the use of multicriteria analysis and ES bundle approach can be some opportunities, it is also a challenge as it requires a deep understanding of the ES and their interrelations, accounts for the complexity and can be more difficult to be accounted in decision-making processes. ES assessment can help a manager or a decision-maker to make a choice based on the importance of the different ecosystems and the societal dependencies on them.
Taking this ES concept into account marks the evolution of environmental management in general and the evolution of strategies for Biosphere Reserves to justify the conservation of biodiversity.
Ecosystem Services and Carbon Sequestration in the Biosphere - zwinarqanbinews.ml
The ES approach is characterized by a normative ambition: defining, categorizing and valuing ES in order to improve the protection of biodiversity. Is it to convince with new tools of the need to better protect biodiversity? Is it to attract more funding for conservation? Is it to monetize some components so far remained outside the market economy and bring it to a new market?
Based solely on the desire to establish an initial state of the situation, there is a risk that further assessments will evolve towards more robust methods which will not allow comparison with this initial ES assessment. Identifying and collecting the data for standardized indicators through time is cautious so that even if the approaches change, ES assessment will be based on a standard set of data and baselines would be re-establish using comparable methods.
Finally, one can imagine that this concept will lead to a shift of the main objectives pursued by protected areas or the creation of new types of protected area, entirely devoted to the protection of ES [ 5 , 77 — 78 ].
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ES assessments are carried out worlwide from local to global scales taking into account the dependencies between society and nature in order to promote biodiversity conservation. Despite their common use, some challenges remain mainly based on the lack of data and a validated analytical framework. The assessment conducted within the Manicouaga-Uapishka World Biosphere Reserve highlights some of these challenges but also some opportunities to overcome them. First, it is difficult to conduct an exhaustive assessment of the ES provided by the territory as they can be very numerous e.
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MA classification, CICES list but a set of key services can be defined using a strategic approach based on specific criteria including the presence of available data. Second, the ES supply is difficult to estimate in common metrics since it requires significant local ecological knowledge and refers to different components of the ecosystem e. However, it requires the identification of robust monetary indicators and available data. Use-value leads to estimate only provisioning ES because of the direct use of ecosystem, recreative ES because of the indirect use of ecosystem and some of regulating ES for which costs have been calculated and validated because of their societal importance e.
Despite its non-completeness, this value serves as a basis for discussion in decision-making processes and generally argues for the sustainable use of resources. Defining a clear objective for ES assessment within biosphere reserves is an essential point to guide the assessment process. Used as an initial state of the ES, one must be aware that futures assessments will not necessarily be comparable with current assessment because of the current methodological and conceptual scientific developments.
Nevertheless, the latters are widely encouraged to be as comprehensive as possible but must be considered with the operationality of the tools. Browse Subject Areas?
blacksmithsurgical.com/t3-assets/speculative/how-many-ways-can.php Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Introduction Man And Biosphere MAB program, created in by UNESCO, has played a pioneering role in supporting and implementing interdisciplinary research to address the challenges of conservation and sustainable use of natural resources from local to global scales [ 1 ].
Materials and methods 2. Download: PPT.
Methods for ES assessment ES supply and demand are both assessed using an articulation between spatial analysis and economic valuation Fig 2. Spatial analysis. Economic valuation. Results 3. Table 2.